Wednesday, July 17, 2013

Lybian war used to put enmity between Turkey, Germany and Austria?


Antonino Paternò Castello, marchese di San Giuliano:

Above image -  ".....Antonino Paternò-Castello, sixth Marquis di San Giuliano (known as Antonino di San Giuliano, Catania, December 10, 1852 - Rome, 16 October 1914) was an Italian politician and diplomat.

After being Postmaster General in 1899, 1905-1906 and 1910-1914 he was Minister of Foreign Affairs of the Kingdom of Italy.

Liberal and anticlerical, in 1906 he directed the Italian politics to the Conference of Algeciras giving it autonomy from all'alleata Germany. Later he was sent as ambassador to London and Paris (1906-1910).

Started his second term for Foreign Affairs (1910), followed by Italy, which exploited the Agadir Crisis to begin the conflict with Turkey. After early successes of the Italian army in Libya he was unable to make a simple protectorate for the decision of the Prime Minister Giovanni Giolitti to implement a complete conquest and annexation. Prolungatosi therefore the conflict, handled the difficult position of Italy towards Europe.

He led the negotiations for the renewal of the Triple Alliance of 1912 and managed the development of the Balkan wars in Italy, with particular attention to Albania of which supported the strategic importance for the control of the Adriatic.

Although proponent of the Triple Alliance, the outbreak of World War I began negotiations approaching the Triple Entente. These contacts lead then, with his successors at Foreign Affairs , to the signing of the Treaty of London and the subsequent descent into the war against Austria in 1915.

After the ultimatum of 28 September 1911 and the landing of troops on the Italian coast of Libya, with the passing of weeks, thanks to German mediation, San Giuliano showed himself willing to negotiations that would have formally left Libya to Turkey, and that they would be granted to 'Italy a protectorate of political-economic [30]. For an alternative view was that instead Giolitti claim full employment of the territory in order to establish any form of domination had wanted to Italy. [31]Forced to revise its plans in terms of annexation and extension of the conflict, the Marquis found himself in trouble with the Allies, who were very close to Turkey: Germany didn't guarantee its mediation in Constantinople [32] and the 'Italy Austria forced not to take action against targets Turkish Italian ships in the Adriatic and Ionian Seas. [33] In France, mounted the protests, which resulted in a diplomatic crisis with Italy January 22, 1912, following a speech to the House of President Poincare [34].The interpretation of Article 7With Austria then began a long and delicate negotiations for the Turkish occupation of the islands of the Aegean, coveted by Italy as a basis to stop the flow of supplies to the Turkish Libyan ports. The Austrian Foreign Minister Alois Lexa von Aehrenthal opposed to such employment by invoking Article 7 of the Triple Alliance, which obliged the power (in Italy or Austria), which expanded in the Balkans and the Aegean to agree with each other to lavish upon her remuneration from [35].Taking advantage of the ongoing negotiations for the renewal of the covenant, San Giuliano parried by the Vienna common understanding ally, Berlin, that the occupations in the Aegean were essential to end the war in Libya, remaining which would have ended the Triple Alliance because Italy would not have renewed it. [36]Meanwhile, the Austrian Foreign Minister Aehrenthal has been succeeded by Leopold Berchtold who was  malleable and, influenced by Germany, on April 6, 1912 showed an opening respect Italy, and 26, the [Italian]  Navy was able to proceed with the landing operations on the first island to be conquered: Stampalia..........".

Wikipedia - URL:,_marchese_di_San_Giuliano

    Plese note the above coincidences of the days and of the nations: both Germany and Italy attacked Yugoslavia without declaration of war in 1941, on 6th April.

Count Leopold Berchtold:


   Above image - "...Leopold (Anton Johann Sigismund Josef Korsinus Ferdinand) Graf Berchtold von und zu Ungarschitz, Frättling und Püllütz (Hungarian: Gróf Berchtold Lipót, Czech: Leopold hrabě Berchtold z Uherčic) (18 April 1863 – 21 November 1942), was an Austro-Hungarian[1] politician, diplomat and statesman who served as Imperial Foreign Minister at the outbreak of World War I.
        .........At the outset of the Balkan Wars, Count Berchtold pursued a hard-line policy and flirted with the idea of war against Serbia, but vacillated and pulled back from intervention at the last moment.[7] Although he managed to prevent Serbia from securing an outlet to the Adriatic Sea with the creation of Albania, the Balkan Wars resulted in a failure to contain the rising Russian influence in the Balkans and thwart Serbian ambitions for a South Slav state.[8] It meant diplomatic defeat for Austria-Hungary and also a reputation of being weak and indecisive for Count Berchtold
        After having dispatched Count Hoyos on a mission to Berlin on 5 July to secure German support for Austria-Hungary's future actions, which resulted in the famous ' blank cheque ', he became the leading spokesman, together with the Chief of the General Staff General Conrad von Hötzendorf, for war against Serbia during the meeting of the imperial Crown Council on 7 July.
        However, Italian Foreign Minister Baron Sonnino succeeded in obtaining vague promises of compensations in South Tyrol from Germany and by the end of 1914, Count Berchtold informed the Crown Council that the choice was either acceptance of the Italian demands or a declaration of war. Both Count Tisza and General Conrad von Hötzendorf expressed a preference for the latter.[16] Under mounting German pressure, Count Berchtold, however, indicated that he was ready to cede the Trentino and parts of the Albanian coastline. When he informed Count Tisza and General Conrad von Hötzendorf of the concessions he was ready to give, they forced him to resign on 13 January 1915.[17] At Count Tisza’s insistence he was replaced by the more pugnacious Count Burián......"
        Wikipedia - URL:

Friday, June 28, 2013

28 JUNE 1914 - Berlin-Baghdad Railway is dead.

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