Thursday, September 6, 2012

The author of 1662 and 1664 EDICT OF TOLERANCE among the ancestors of Ulrich von Hassell

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".....He [Albrecht von Stosch, uncle of the mother of Ulrich von Hassel] came from the branches of an old Silesian noble family, who broke away from the bloodline, and produced a number of efficient Reformed theologians . Among other belonged to the famous chaplain of the Great Elector, Bartholomew von Stosch. The grandfather of Albrecht von Stosch was chaplain in Berlin......".

    [From German page of Wikipedia on  Albrecht von Stosch - see below in References the original text]
 
 
     Frederick Willhelm I Elector of Brandenburg and his Edict of Potsdam:



 
 The Edict of Potsdam (German: Edikt von Potsdam) was a proclamation issued by Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia, in Potsdam on October 29, 1685, as a response to the revocation of the Edict of Nantes by the Edict of Fontainebleau.
In October 1685, King Louis XIV of France issued the Edict of Fontainebleau, which was part of a program of persecution that closed Huguenot churches and schools. This policy escalated the harassment of religious minorities since the dragonnades created in 1681 in order to intimidate Huguenots into converting to Catholicism. As a result, a large number of Protestants — estimates range from 210,000 to 900,000 — left France over the next two decades........

[In relation to the increase of population, such numbers should correspond to those "between twelve and fourteen million people, ethnic Germans," .....(see below References) - note of avles]

    ......... On October 29, 1685, Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg issued the Edict of Potsdam, which encouraged oppressed Huguenots to immigrate to his nation by offering them numerous benefits. The edict gave French Protestants safe passage to Brandenburg-Prussia, offered them tax-free status for ten years, and allowed them to hold church services in their native French. [1] As a result, Potsdam became a center of European immigration, its religious freedom attracting not only French Protestants but also the persecuted of Russia, the Netherlands, and Bohemia. Thus, the immigrants to the Electorate of Brandenburg stabilized and greatly improved the country's economy following the destructive religious wars that had swept through Europe in the seventeenth-century.
......."
 URL:   http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edict_of_Potsdam
     
      Lutherans feared to be substituted in the key roles by the Calvinists. Below,  Lutherans plundering the homes of Calvinists in Leipzig, towards the end of XVII century (about Edict of Potsdam years):




    Frederick had to keep united Protestant Prussia in front of the religious enemy, and twenty/twentyfive years before the Edict of Potsdam he issued the.....:

"........The Brandenburg Edict was issued in 1664 by Elector Friedrich Wilhelm I and governed relations between the Lutheran and Reformed denominations in the country from the Lords.

     The edict forbade the Lutherans and the Reformed (Calvinist) in
particular theologians, to practice their, public criticism to the teachings of each other faiths from the pulpit .
     The Confessions of the Evangelical Lutheran Church were restricted in their validity concerning the demarcations with the Calvinist doctrine. Effectively so that the validity of the Formula of Concord was lifted.

The edict of the Reformed elector saw a part of the Lutheran theologians at a disadvantage of his own party and made bitter opposition.
...
.......(.......)......
 Decisive here is the program of the Heidelberg Reformed David Pareus  with the aim of create a bridge over religious antagonisms between Reformed and Lutherans, to create a common front against the Catholic Church.
....."

[see below REFERENCES]



    How much was the Brandenburg Edict important in to keep united Protestant Prussia? 
    Creating a "wall" (in XX century  allusively and sarcastically replied at the end of WWII by the "Berlin's Wall" and the "Two Germany") in front of that third subject who always hoped "to build his fortunes" with the fratricidal wars inside the Protestant field?



    Chaplain of the Great Elector, Bartholomew von Stosch, [one among the ancestors of Ulrich von Hassel], author of the Brandenburg Edict :
       Stosch: St. Bartholomew, chaplain of Brandenburg court [kurbrandenburgischer chaplain] and Consistory, born in Strehlen in Silesia on 12 September 1604, on 5 † (?) In March 1686 in Berlin. - St. [St. from now stands for "Stosch" - a.] came from a branch of the widespread Silesian noble family as von Stosch. His father was rector of the town school in Strehlen, where St. enjoyed his first training, then the then quickly frequent the blossomed Schönaichianum School in Bytom. As this institution declined  as a result of the horrors of the Thirty Years' War, he moved to continue his theological studies, at the University of Frankfurt on the Oder [five kilometres west to the Sands of Kunersdorf - a.], where he found through the agency of one of his former teachers support and favorable reception in the home of the professor of theology Conrad Bergius. This recommended him after completing his studies to his brother, the kurbrandenburgischen chaplain  Johann Bergius, through whose intercession he received a private tutor in a Prussian aristocratic home. Several years he was here active and won many relationships among the Prussian nobility. Most strongly on his training had the relation, into which he entered with Achatius IIl., Viscount of Dohna. To the in-depth education and the serious religious life direction he owed many  stimulus. With the son of Erbhauptmanns v. Gilgenburg He then toured the Netherlands, France and [461] England. In the year 1640 he returned to Prussia and was after a short stay with his patron, the Earl of Castle Dohna, pastor Pilten in Livonia.

     There he knew the Reformed confession and was ordained by the Bohemian Brethren in Lissa, as well by of the Lutheran clergy in Prussia. Already in the year 1643 he was appointed on the proposal of the Electress Elisabeth Charlotte mother, as chaplain of Frederick William to the cathedral in Cölln a.d . Spree. As he also simultaneously came to Elbing and Marienburg  he preferred  at Easter 1644 to take service in the court of Brandenburg. Soon he was one of the immediate vicinity of the elector. In the year 1645 he served as chaplain busy in Königsberg in Prussia and accompanied the sister of the elector, Luise Charlotte, in her marriage with the Duke of Courland in their new homes to Riga, where he stayed for some time in order to build a Reformed worship [church - a.]. Of utmost importance for the future, it was then that he was in the year 1647 called to Cleve as dienstthuender (?) chaplain of  the court. Here he came into close contact with the just married Electress Louise, who then kept him for some time of her life as a pastor, as she consistently agreed with his religious views . A first proof of the elector's confidence was the fact that the 1648 St. baptized natives Prince Wilhelm Heinrich. In the many afflictions which befell the royal family, he just did not let to lack spiritual consolation. So when Prince Frederick was born, St. baptized him  also.  

     His relations with the Electress, whom he accompanied on his designed to more intimate, and thus it was that in 1659 he was appointed as successor to the late Johann Bergius in the consistory. In this position, he then exercised under the direction of the Senior President Otto von Schwerin, a significant influence on the religious policy of the Elector. The electoral edicts of 1662 and 1664, which forbade to the Lutheran the critic to the Reformers [i.e. to the Calvinists - a.]  flowed from his pen. Also in the colloquy, which Frederick William had to begin in autumn 1662, he sought to wrest from the Lutheran clergy the concession that they agree in the important points with the Reformed doctrine. He intervened from distance different times in the then heavily in Mark surging dispute between Lutheran and Reformed. In the "Summa Homer report of the märckischen reformed churches concordance with others in and outside Germany Reformed congregations" (Berlin, 1666), he led one to prove that the Brandenburg Church with others reformed in teaching agrees, and that the electoral regulations only had the purpose that no private opinions, but only overt symbols were used as a basis for doctrinal disputes.  


     This scripture to this was a literary querelle that soon coincided with a polemic against his colleague Andrew Fromm, who was deposed in Brandenburg and went to Wittenberg. This last dispute raises Stosch's character not in a favorable light. In the year 1668 he took part in the irenic negotiations with the Scot John Duraeus in part [WS 1]. Since when  in 1667 the Princess Louise, whom St. held a magnificent funeral oration, died, and Otto von Schwerin then 1669 of spiritual matters was dismissed, removed his influence on politics, particularly as the new  wife of the elector, Dorothea Holstein, with his religious beliefs he did not agree. In the consistory he had during the seventies,  in addition the monitoring and evaluation of the theological writings of the Mark's clergy  sent to to the publication,  to hold the conferences, which were common with newly appointed ministers. He now had been considered earlier [462] as the main opponent of the Lutheran, he came because of these conferences, especially in Mißcredit, and poured in on him at the elector complaints especially from the stands. The last time St. significantly appears is in 1682 at the Union negotiations of Bishop Christopher Rojas Spinola. Ill-health forced him to resign in 1684 from consistory. His death is not  documented. He was buried on 14 März 1686th - A series of sermons (including funeral orations) are printed get from him, but very rarely. Some of them, especially the funeral sermon for the Princess Louise deserve to still be read today. In other Reformed teaching points are discussed in consideration of the circumstances at that time. - Of his children. are the Royal. Prussian Privy Councillor and Secretary of State Frederick William St., and the Royal. Councillor, privy chamberlain and the Black Eagle Treasurer William Henry St. known, they took the needle again.

    See Sexton, Old and New Berlin I, 162 ff Berlin 1737th - My essay: Bartholomew Stosch, kurbrandenburgischer chaplain in research on Brandenb. and Prussian. History VI, 91 ff Leipzig 1893rd


URL:  http://de.wikisource.org/wiki/ADB:Stosch,_Bartholom%C3%A4us

[text google translated and then re-fined by me but in a very "fast and furious" way. I hope you understand, "I have no resources, no money, no time,..." etc.]


 *   *   *
.....and all this destroyed, as promised at least since 1850 by a fatwa of Rome:

   
Sunday, September 2, 2012

The cardinal Wiseman inspired by the Sands of Kunersdorf and the Miracle at the House of Brandenburg? 

 http://avles-theamberpath.blogspot.it/2012/09/the-cardinal-wiseman-inspired-by-sands.html



Tuesday, September 4, 2012

The Jesuitical assassination of the Protestant Prussia heritage 

 http://avles-theamberpath.blogspot.it/2012/09/the-jesuitical-assassination-of.html



 
-------------------------------REFERENCES:
Top images:
    1) Frederick William, Elector of Brandenburg;
    2) Berlin Palace, place of the religious talk"The Berlin Religious Colloquy was a colloquy between Lutheran and Reformed theologians of Brandenburg, with the aim of approaching the two Protestant denominations. It was called by the Great Elector of 8 September 1662 until 29 In June 1663 in Berlin, Schloss Cölln [1] under the direction of Brandenburg First Minister Otto von Schwerin. After 17 sessions, it ceased without results." - URL: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Berliner_Religionsgespr%C3%A4ch
    3) Albrecht von Stosch;
    4) Ulrich von Hassell.

----------------------------------------------

Re-edited 07 Sept 2012: I painted in red the words: "[Albrecht von Stosch, uncle of the mother of Ulrich von Hassel]"

"......Von Hassell descended from old landed nobility. He was born the son of First Lieutenant Ulrich von Hassell and Margarete (born von Stosch).........(..........)......His mother was a niece of Albrecht von Stosch, the Prussian Minister of State and chief of the Admiralität......."

The above ones are excerpts from Wikipedia German page on Ulrich von Hassel quoted in the previous my:

http://avles-theamberpath.blogspot.it/2012/09/the-jesuitical-assassination-of.html

----------------------------------------------

 "between twelve and fourteen million people, ethnic Germans," [and Protestants]:

 Saturday, September 1, 2012

Planned Long Before The War Came To An End...

Original German text: 

"........Er stammte aus einem Zweige eines alten schlesischen Adelsgeschlechts, der den Adel ablegte und eine Reihe tüchtiger reformierter Theologen hervorgebracht hat. Unter anderen gehörte dazu der bekannte Hofprediger des Großen Kurfürsten, Bartholomäus v. Stosch. Auch der Großvater Albrechts v. Stosch war Hofprediger in Berlin. ........."  


 ------------------------------------------------------

"......Frederick William (German: Friedrich Wilhelm) (16 February 1620 – 29 April 1688) was Elector of Brandenburg and Duke of Prussia – and thus ruler of Brandenburg-Prussia – from 1640 until his death. A member of the House of Hohenzollern, he is popularly known as "The Great Elector"[1] (German: Der Große Kurfürst) because of his military and political prowess. Frederick William was a staunch pillar of the Calvinist faith, associated with the rising commercial class. He saw the importance of trade and promoted it vigorously. His shrewd domestic reforms gave Prussia a strong position in the post-Westphalia political order of north-central Europe, setting Prussia up for elevation from duchy to kingdom, achieved under his successor.............."

URL:  http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Frederick_William,_Elector_of_Brandenburg

 -------------------------------------------------------
 "Toleranzedikt (Brandenburg)"

Stosch was important key in to make peace between Lutherans and Calvinists ("Reformers"). The arrival of the persecuted Calvinists from France caused troubled as the Lutherans feared to be putted aside. See:

German:  http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Toleranzedikt_%28Brandenburg%29

English doesn't exist. But it exists for the Edict of Potsdam:

German: http://de.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edikt_von_Potsdam

English: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Edict_of_Potsdam


--------------------------------
 Original text: http://de.wikisource.org/wiki/ADB:Stosch,_Bartholom%C3%A4us

ADB:Stosch, Bartholomäus

 Stosch: Bartholomäus St., kurbrandenburgischer Hofprediger und Consistorialrath, geboren in Strehlen in Schlesien am 12. September 1604, † am 5. (?) März 1686 in Berlin. – St. entstammte einem Zweige des in Schlesien weitverbreiteten Adelsgeschlechtes derer v. Stosch. Sein Vater war Rector der Stadtschule in Strehlen, in der St. seine erste Ausbildung genoß, um dann das damals schnell erblühte Gymnasium Schönaichianum in Beuthen a. d. O. zu besuchen. Als diese Anstalt infolge der Wirren des dreißigjährigen Krieges zurückging, bezog er zur Fortsetzung seiner theologischen Studien die Universität Frankfurt a. d. O., wo er durch Vermittlung eines seiner früheren Lehrer Unterstützung und wohlwollende Aufnahme in dem Hause des Professors der Theologie Konrad Bergius fand. Dieser empfahl ihn auch nach Vollendung seiner Studien an seinen Bruder, den kurbrandenburgischen Hofprediger Johann Bergius, durch dessen Vermittlung er eine Hauslehrerstelle in einem preußischen adligen Hause erhielt. Verschiedene Jahre hindurch war er hier thätig und gewann mancherlei Beziehungen unter dem preußischen Adel. Am nachhaltigsten auf seine Ausbildung wirkte der Verkehr, in den er mit Achatius IIl., Burggrafen von Dohna, trat. Der tiefgehenden Bildung und der ernsten religiösen Lebensrichtung desselben verdankte er vielerlei Anregung. Mit dem Sohne des Erbhauptmanns v. Gilgenburg bereiste er dann die Niederlande, Frankreich und [461] England. Im J. 1640 kehrte er nach Preußen zurück und wurde nach kurzem Aufenthalt bei seinem Gönner, dem Burggrafen von Dohna, Pfarrer zu Pilten in Livland. Da er zu dem reformirten Bekenntniß sich bekannte, so ließ er sich lieber von den böhmischen Brüdern in Lissa, als von der lutherischen Geistlichkeit in Preußen ordiniren. Bereits im J. 1643 wurde er auf Vorschlag der Kurfürstin-Mutter Elisabeth Charlotte, als Hofprediger von Friedrich Wilhelm an den Dom in Cölln a. d. Spree berufen. Wenn er auch gleichzeitig nach Elbing und Marienburg kommen konnte, so zog er es doch vor, zu Ostern 1644 in die kurbrandenburgischen Dienste zu treten. Bald gehörte er zu der unmittelbaren Umgebung des Kurfürsten. Im J. 1645 war er als Hofprediger in Königsberg in Pr. thätig und begleitete die Schwester des Kurfürsten, Luise Charlotte, nach ihrer Vermählung mit dem Herzog von Kurland in ihre neue Heimath nach Riga, wo er einige Zeit blieb und einen reformirten Gottesdienst einrichtete. Von größter Bedeutung für seine Zukunft war es dann, daß er im J. 1647 nach Cleve als dienstthuender Hofprediger berufen wurde. Hier trat er zuerst in nähere Beziehung zu der jung vermählten Kurfürstin Luise, die ihn dann zeit ihres Lebens als Seelsorger behielt, da sie mit seinen religiösen Ansichten durchweg übereinstimmte. Ein erster Beweis des kurfürstlichen Vertrauens war es, daß St. den 1648 gebornen Prinzen Wilhelm Heinrich taufte. In den mancherlei Trübsalen, welche der kurfürstlichen Familie widerfuhren, hat gerade er es nicht an seelsorgerischem Trost fehlen lassen. Als dann Prinz Friedrich geboren wurde, taufte ihn St. ebenfalls. Seine Beziehungen zur Kurfürstin, die er auf ihren Reisen begleitete, gestalteten sich immer inniger, und dadurch kam es, daß er 1659 zum Nachfolger des verstorbenen Johann Bergius in das Consistorium berufen wurde. In dieser Stellung hat er dann unter Leitung des Oberpräsidenten Otto v. Schwerin einen bedeutenden Einfluß auf die Kirchenpolitik des Kurfürsten ausgeübt. Die kurfürstlichen Edicte von 1662 und 1664, welche den Lutherischen das Verketzern der Reformirten untersagten, sind aus seiner Feder geflossen. Auch bei dem Religionsgespräch, welches Friedrich Wilhelm im Herbst 1662 beginnen ließ, suchte er der lutherischen Geistlichkeit das Zugeständniß abzuringen, daß sie in den wichtigen Punkten mit der reformirten Lehre übereinstimme. Des ferneren griff er verschiedenfach in den damals in der Mark heftig wogenden Streit zwischen Lutherischen und Reformirten publicistisch ein. Im „Summarischen Bericht von der märckischen reformirten Kirchen Einträchtigkeit mit andern in und ausser Deutschland reformirten Gemeinen“ (Berlin 1666) führte er einmal den Nachweis, daß die märkische Kirche mit andern reformirten in der Lehre übereinstimme, und daß die kurfürstlichen Verordnungen lediglich den Zweck hätten, daß nicht Privatmeinungen, sondern nur offenkundige Symbole als Grundlage für dogmatische Streitigkeiten genommen würden. An diese Schrift knüpfte sich eine litterarische Fehde, die bald mit einer Polemik gegen seinen Amtsgenossen Andreas Fromm, der in Brandenburg abgesetzt und nach Wittenberg gegangen war, zusammenfiel. Gerade dieser letzte Streit wirft auf Stosch’s Charakter kein günstiges Licht. Im J. 1668 nahm er an den irenischen Verhandlungen mit dem Schotten Johannes Duraeus[WS 1] theil. Da bereits 1667 die Kurfürstin Luise, der St. eine herrliche Leichenpredigt hielt, gestorben war, und Otto v. Schwerin dann 1669 der geistlichen Angelegenheiten enthoben wurde, nahm sein Einfluß auf die Politik ab, zumal auch die neu heimgeführte Gattin des Kurfürsten, Dorothea von Holstein, mit seinen religiösen Ansichten nicht übereinstimmte. Im Consistorium hatte er während der siebziger Jahre neben der Ueberwachung und Begutachtung der von märkischen Geistlichen zum Druck bestimmten theologischen Schriften, namentlich die Conferenzen abzuhalten, welche mit neuberufenen Geistlichen üblich waren. Hatte er nun schon früher [462] als der Hauptgegner der Lutherischen gegolten, so kam er wegen dieser Conferenzen besonders in Mißcredit, und liefen über ihn bei dem Kurfürsten Beschwerden namentlich von den Ständen ein. Zum letzten Male tritt St. bedeutsam im J. 1682 bei den Unionsverhandlungen des Bischofs Christoph Rojas von Spinola hervor. Kränklichkeit zwang ihn 1684 sein Amt im Consistorium niederzulegen. Sein Todestag steht nicht urkundlich fest. Begraben wurde er am 14. März 1686. – Eine ganze Reihe von Predigten (namentlich Leichenreden) sind von ihm gedruckt erhalten, doch höchst selten. Einige derselben, besonders die Leichenpredigt für die Kurfürstin Luise, verdienen auch heute noch gelesen zu werden. In anderen werden reformirte Lehrpunkte in Rücksicht auf die damaligen Zeitverhältnisse erörtert. – Von seinen Kindern. sind der königl. preußische Hofrath und Geheime Staatssecretär Friedrich Wilhelm St., und der königl. Hofrath, Geheimer Kämmerer und des Schwarzen Adlerordens Schatzmeister Wilhelm Heinrich St. bekannter, sie nahmen den Adel wieder an.

    Vgl. Küster, Altes und neues Berlin I, 162 ff. Berlin 1737. – Mein Aufsatz: Bartholomäus Stosch, kurbrandenburgischer Hofprediger in Forschungen zur brandenb. u. preuß. Geschichte VI, 91 ff. Leipzig 1893.

Hugo Landwehr.

Anmerkungen (Wikisource)

    ↑ John Durie (1596–1680), schottischer presbyterianischer Theologe.
 

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