Monday, November 22, 2010

Lutheranism and "Crypto-Calvinism"

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"....Crypto-Calvinism is a term for Calvinist influence in the Lutheran Church during the decades just after the death of Martin Luther (1546). It denotes what was seen as a hidden ("crypto" from "kryptein", Greek for "to hide") Calvinist belief, i.e. the doctrines of John Calvin, by members of the Lutheran Church. The term applied to those Germans, who secretly held or were accused of holding the Calvinist doctrine of the Eucharist.

The term crypto-Calvinist in Lutheranism was preceded by terms Zwinglian and Sacramentarian.

Also, Jansenism has been accused of crypto-Calvinism by Roman Catholics.

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Martin Luther had had controversy with "Sacramentarians", and he published against them, for example, in his The Sacrament of the Body and Blood of Christ—Against the Fanatics and Confession Concerning Christ's Supper. Philipp I of Hessen arranged Marburg Colloquy 1529, which caused no results. Later Wittenberg Concord 1536 made some Reformed to confess doctrine of Real Presence, but results did not last.

While Lutheranism had weakened after the Schmalkaldic War and Interim controversies, the Calvinist Reformation on the other hand was spreading over Europe. Calvinists wanted to help also Lutherans to give up "remnants of popery", as they saw it. Calvinism had expanded its influence now also to southern Germany (not least because of the work of Martin Bucer), but at this time Peace of Augsburg (1555) had given religious freedom in Germany only to Lutherans, and it was not officially extended to Calvinists until the Treaty of Westphalia 1648. While Zwinglians 1549 had accepted Calvin's much less radical view of the Christs presence in Lord's Supper (The Eucharist was to be more than a sign; Christ was truly present in it, and was received by Faith), Calvinist theologians thought, that Lutheran theology also had changed its view to Real Presence, because the issue had not been discussed anymore, and Philippist teaching gave some justification to this conclusion.

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When Luther died in 1546, his closest friend and ally Philipp Melanchthon became the leading Lutheran theologian of Protestant Reformation. He was by training not a theologian but rather a classics scholar, and his theological approach became more or less irenic both toward Catholicism and toward Calvinism, which was followed by his disciples called Philippists.

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From Wikipedia: http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Crypto-Calvinism

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(As I have no time, no resources, no money, no support at disposition, it is clear that what I wrote is affected by many errors and uncorrectness. I am not a prostitute lay journalist of this dirty Vatican 'tollerant' regime called 'democracy'. I have not the 51% of the Bank of America supporting my writings. I don't control the Casinò of Ostenda and neither Citroen and Peugeot as the General Superior did at least in 1958. So corrections and additions could appear in the future)

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